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Man muss den Italienern das Bewusstsein für die Rasse geben, damit sie keine Mischlinge schaffen - und damit sie nicht das Schöne zerstören, das in uns ist. Ich werde ein Massaker anrichten, wie es die Türken taten.

Ich interniere sie auf einer kleinen Insel. Sie alle sind Aas, Feind, Feigling. Und werden noch sehen, wozu die Stahlfaust Mussolinis fähig ist. Wozu ausgerechnet der dokumentarische Ehrgeiz einer handzahmen Sklavin fähig ist, dürften italienische Postfaschisten spätestens dieser Tage begreifen, da die lange Zeit unter Verschluss befindlichen Tagebücher der Clara Petacci veröffentlicht werden. Es mag zynisch klingen, aber für die Geschichtsschreibung muss es so scheinen, als habe sich "Claretta" nicht umsonst hingegeben.

Posted by Mauro Suttora at 6: Supermercati, la seconda volta di Caprotti jr. Uno scontro che fece rumore. Ma oggi torna alla ribalta nel mondo della grande distribuzione con due consulenze di peso. E che, in concorrenza con Esselunga, rappresentano quasi una sfida al padre. La prima sono i food corner Qb Quanto basta nei grandi magazzini Coin. Quello di Genova ha debuttato un mese fa. Seguiranno a maggio due dei quattro Coin milanesi: Cose di cui mi ero occupato in Esselunga: Suo padre secolo due anni fa lo ha venduto a Standa: Laureato in storia alla Sorbona di Parigi, Caprotti era entrato in Esselunga con un apprendistato dal basso.

Ha lavorato due anni nei supermarket di Chicago, di cui uno da operaio tra casse e scaffali. Nel ha preso le redini del colosso da cinque miliardi di fatturato, trasformandone la cultura aziendale. Da azienda chiusa in se stessa, Esselunga divenne terreno di sperimentazione: Marsilio scritto nel dal padre contro le Coop. Per la disperazione degli amministratori locali, nessuna lottizzazione in vista: Caprotti junior ne rimane azionista al 33,3 per cento: Suo padre nel compie 85 anni, da dieci si dice che vende.

Ma non ha venduto. Le novità vengono subito con De Luca, che guadagna tre posizioni, e i Wu Ming con un romanzo in cui si muovono in maniera indipendente i personaggi di Q. Subito tra i più venduti anche le eccentriche zitelle di Tracy Chevalier e Valerio M. Negli Italiani si viaggia nella Bellano magica e by night di Vitali, nell' antica Roma di Comastri Montanari e nella Venezia ottocentesca di Maurensig.

Le new entry oscillano tra brividi Deaver , sentimenti Sparks e pillole di letteratura Fénéon. Nei Saggi, Vespa è davanti a tutti; inseguono Brosio, folgorato sulla via di Medjugorje, e Gad Lerner, che scala undici posti; le novità sono Mancuso e Mussolini, nei diari della Petacci. Posted by Mauro Suttora at 5: Sunday, November 29, Diario de Noticias Portogallo: Vida sexual de Mussolini. Vida sexual de Mussolini nas palavras da amante ciumenta Lisbona, Hugo Coelho "Sabes amor", começou o político italiano, "esta noite no teatro despi-te três vezes.

Olhava para ti e na minha cabeça tirava-te a roupa e desejava-te como um louco Mas o homem que a disse chamava-se Benito Mussolini. Mas em Abril deste ano, quando as festas de Berlusconi foram postas a nu nos jornais os italianos voltaram a ser confrontados com a vida pessoal de um líder.

E quando foi executado pelos comunistas, durante a sua tentativa de fuga para a Suíça em Abril de , a amante Clara Petacci acompanhou-o na morte. A amante escreveu que para Mussolini era "inconcebível dormir com uma só mulher": Filha de um médico do Vaticano, Petacci tinha 20 anos quando conheceu Mussolini - na altura, com 49 anos, casado e pai de cinco filhos. Mussolini parou para falar com ela e convidou-a para ir ao Palazzo Venezia.

Conta-se que durante os primeiros anos viveram um amor platónico. Petacci casou e separou-se de um piloto antes de Mussolini fazer dela sua amante. Petacci era a mais ciumenta das centenas de mulheres que passaram pelos braços do ditador.

Conta-se que o obrigava a telefonar, pelo menos, dez vezes por dia. Quando ele se atrasava, acusava-o de a estar trair. Estive 12 minutos com ela". Foi como quando faço amor com a minha mulher. Ele gosta mesmo de mim. Só que tem ataques de raiva".

Mais tarde Petacci escreve como Mussolini se sentia irritado por pensarem nele como seguidor de Hitler. As confissões provam como Petacci era a mulher mais importante da vida de Mussolini. Eu nasci para ti. E vou acabar ao teu lado. A fotografia é uma das poucas deles os dois, lado a lado.

Posted by Mauro Suttora at 7: Thursday, November 26, Bbc: Mussolini hits the shelves. Posted by Mauro Suttora at 8: Coraggioso perché questo tema sembra diventato un tabù, malgrado le decine di documenti in proposito che sono stati pubblicati negli ultimi anni.

È una strana reazione. Non basta a giustificarla il fatto che Renzo De Felice, di cui molti degli storici che coltivano questo tabù sono stati allievi, abbia negato che il Duce sia stato appunto razzista e antisemita molto prima delle leggi razziali. C' è qualcosa d' altro, in queste reazioni. Forse, malgrado tutto, Mussolini viene considerato un autentico e profondo padre della patria e un autentico e rappresentativo italiano molto più di quanto comunemente venga detto.

Intanto, bisogna ribadire che non c' è il minimo dubbio che quei diari siano autenticissimi: Dopo di che, basta analizzare quei testi e confrontarli con la documentazione che conosciamo. Il primo è una frase che è già stata contestata, e che Claretta scrisse il 4 agosto Quel giorno Mussolini le disse: Seconda questione oggetto di contestazione: Che nel discorso a stampa e forse anche in quello davvero pronunciato il 28 ottobre non risulti che Mussolini abbia detto qualcosa contro gli ebrei, è ovvio: Riteneva che non gli convenisse e sicuramente non voleva scatenare l' antisemitismo.

Peraltro la testimonianza della Petacci non dice che il Duce fece quell' osservazione nel corso del discorso. Mussolini potrebbe aver detto qualcosa sugli ebrei in qualsiasi momento della cerimonia e anche in privato.

Il inoltre è costellato di episodi, provati, di antisemitismo di Mussolini: Wednesday, November 25, Le auto di De Benedetti prigioniere. Da inizio novembre in tredici sono rimasti senza le loro automobili, prigioniere del garage sotto la sede centrale di via Ciovasso, in pieno centro a Milano, fra Duomo e Brera.

Ma lui pare se la sia cavata: La sua vettura personale giace nel silos inaccessibile di via Ciovasso. Che è uno di quei parcheggi totalmente meccanizzati in cui le auto vengono trasportate su e giù con un ascensore. Purtroppo la società di gestione, Interpark, prevede ancora tempi lunghi per il recupero: Ma neanche uscire, in caso di incidente. Posted by Mauro Suttora at 2: Tutta colpa di due libri pubblicati quasi in contemporanea: La prima amante del duce per dieci anni, la seconda escort del Cavaliere per una sola notte.

Le analogie finiscono qui? Entrambi sono emersi come leader dinamici quando la democrazia si stava incartando. Entrambi bassi e tozzi, di fisico contadinesco. Ma nel diario della Petacci, Mussolini racconta il contrario: Facemmo il bagno insieme, mi toccava la gamba col piede. Ma io niente, rimasi di legno. Lei era la principessa, io il presidente del Consiglio.

Forse si tratta solo di vanterie maschili romagnole, visto che la principessa belga era finora considerata avversa al fascismo. In ogni caso, metterla nel mazzo assieme a una prostituta non pare degno di gentiluomini britannici. Mussolini, invece, era brusco: Giungendo a una conclusione: Rivela infatti Nicholas Farrell, autore di una biografia di Mussolini: Tuesday, November 24, Pakistan: Claretta Petacci was the daughter of a Vatican doctor, who met Mussolini in when she was 20 and became his mistress four years later.

Her journal published last week describes the period from to In her diary she has written the times of the calls and their conversation. Posted by Mauro Suttora at 1: Monday, November 23, "Mussolini segreto": Abita in famiglia a Roma proprio accanto a villa Torlonia, sulla via Nomentana, dove il dittatore vive con la possessiva moglie Rachele e i figli.

Dei primi cinque anni di relazione rimangono solo biglietti, lettere, e le trascrizioni di qualche telefonata o colloquio. La Petacci, infatti, è una grafomane: Abbiamo quindi operato una selezione, eliminando molti fogli ripetitivi con fantasie amorose o episodi insignificanti.

Quel che rimane, tuttavia, è di estremo interesse. La quale lo sospetta - e a ragione - di incontrare altre amanti a palazzo Venezia, e perfino a villa Torlonia. Insomma, abbiamo per la prima volta una cronaca intima, minuto per minuto, della vita quotidiana del fondatore del fascismo. Con momenti esilaranti, che ricordano il film Il grande dittatore di Charlie Chaplin.

Come in un vaudeville. Proprio in quelle settimane maturano gravissimi eventi: Hitler e Mussolini preparano la tragedia più grande della storia umana. Il dittatore comanda, controlla e opprime 44 milioni di italiani. E negare o scusarsi per le scappatelle da traditore seriale. Non ha mai lavorato, ha lasciato la scuola dopo il ginnasio. Ma non ha ragioni per mentire, o distorcere la realtà. Almeno quella percepita dal suo cuore, appassionato fino allo spasimo, tanto da farsi uccidere col suo Benito nel Ecco quindi, dopo settant'anni, il duce privato.

Furbo e ingenuo assieme, falso e sincero, brillante e vergognoso. Questi diari hanno una storia complicata e affascinante. Da allora tutti i governi italiani hanno imposto il segreto di stato sul loro contenuto, anche se è probabile che siano passati al vaglio dei servizi segreti statunitense e inglese.

Essi fanno parte, infatti, delle tragiche e ancora in parte misteriose vicende dipanatesi negli ultimi giorni della guerra: Il segreto imposto sui diari di Claretta in questi sette decenni ha provocato una marea di supposizioni, centinaia di articoli e decine di libri. La sua battaglia è stata continuata da Ferdinando Petacci, nipote di Claretta, ultimo e unico erede della famiglia e quindi titolare dei diritti di pubblicazione dei diari.

Nel ho conosciuto e intervistato Ferdinando a Phoenix in Arizona Usa , dove vive. Egli è convinto, come alcuni storici, che Claretta e Marcello siano stati spie inglesi o almeno tramiti fra Mussolini e i servizi segreti britannici, e che proprio per questo siano stati eliminati. Ferdinando Petacci espone questa tesi nella prefazione. Scrive infatti il 15 ottobre Emilio Re, ispettore generale degli Archivi di Stato, nella sua relazione su questi diari per il ministero degli Interni: I più veri e importanti diari di Mussolini sono proprio questi della Petacci, dove il dittatore ridiventa uomo, si rivela senza trucchi e senza artefici.

Ricci e la dottoressa Luisa Montevecchi, curatrice del Fondo Petacci. Mauro Suttora Milano, novembre Posted by Mauro Suttora at 4: He was short barely 5ft , bald, suffered horribly from constipation and, by all accounts, rather let himself down when it came to personal hygiene. But the father of fascism must have had more than just a very twinkly eye. Because while we've always known he possessed a certain 'je ne sais quoi' - he wasn't known as Italy's 'Phallus-in-Chief' for nothing - the full extent of his extravagantly wild sex life has stayed safely under wraps.

Until now, that is, and the emergence of a series of graphically detailed diaries kept by Claretta Petacci - his lover for nine years and the woman with whom he was shot dead as they tried to flee Italy in The diaries reveal that Il Duce regularly had 14 lovers at a time, would rattle through three or four ladies in an evening and was startlingly noisy when in the throes of passion.

Oh yes, and he wasn't averse to a bit of playful biting. After decades under lock and key - Italy has a year secrecy rule on state documents - the journals are due to be published this month in a book called Mussolini Segreto Secret Mussolini. They cover the period from to - the halcyon days of Mussolini's dictatorship - and, according to the book's editor Mauro Suttora, provide 'an intimate chronicle, minute by minute, of the daily life of the founder of fascism'.

Claretta didn't spare any blushes and every moan, whimper and pant of their sex life is included. I kiss him and we make love with such fury that his screams seem like those of a wounded beast.

Then, exhausted, he falls onto the bed. They met by chance when Claretta was just 20 and Mussolini 49 - and married with five children.

The young Claretta - who'd had a crush on him since her early teens and had been writing him poems and letters for years - was driving with her parents in the family Lancia when Mussolini's red Alfa Romeo roared past.

She recognised him, shouted 'Il Duce, Il Duce! They struck up a supposedly platonic four-year friendship, during which she married and separated from a young air force officer before Benito finally took her as his lover.

It was a passionate affair. One of these days I'll tear a shoulder off. And you must adore my body, your giant It's like a cyclone. It's tremendous; it overwhelms everything. In April , she records their exchange after she caught him with former girlfriend Alice De Fonseca Pallottelli. I hadn't seen her since before Christmas, I felt like seeing her; I don't think I committed a crime. I spent 12 minutes with her,' he conceded. After 17 years there's no enthusiasm; it's like when I take my wife.

Mussolini was never going to be faithful - not to his wife Rachele Guidi, whom he'd married when he was 31, and certainly not to his lover. Ever since he'd lost his virginity at 17 to a prostitute - 'she was an elderly woman who spilled out lard from all parts of her body' - he'd been obsessed with sex.

I undressed them with my eyes, the girls that I met, I lusted after them violently with my thoughts. It can't have been easy being Claretta. At the peak of his power, thousands of letters arrived every day from women begging Mussolini to sleep with them - one teacher from Piedmont even wrote pleading that he deflower her on her wedding night. The letters were sorted into 'known' or 'new' categories. After background checks by his policemen on the 'new' women, they were passed on to the great man himself, who'd pick out any that caught his eye - generally, the older women with big breasts and powerful hips - and have them summoned to the Palazzo Venezia.

It meant a busy schedule and, like Napoleon, he didn't waste time. Trysts took place in the afternoon, usually on a stone window seat, the carpet or against a wall, and - according to one former lover - ended without ceremony, 'coffee, liqueur or even a piece of cake'. Meanwhile, Claretta sat waiting for him in her apartments, listening to Chopin and miserably eating sweets.

According to one man servant, from the moment he moved into the Palazzo in September until the collapse of his regime in July , Mussolini had sex with a different woman nearly every day. Exaggeration or not, he was at it hammer and tongs - something he freely admitted to Claretta, explaining monogamy was 'inconceivable' to him and lecturing her on the benefits of the orgasms.

So there was Cornelia Tanzi, who was 'frigid, so cold it's incredible And Giulia Brambilla Carminati, of whom he said: I never loved her; it was purely physical. Every so often, when I felt like it, I'd have her. I think about you all day, even when I'm working.

But politics did, occasionally, get a mention. Such as the description of a meeting Mussolini had with Hitler in after Neville Chamberlain, the British prime minister, agreed to Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland. At heart, Hitler is an old sentimentalist.

When he saw me he had tears in his eyes. He really does like me a lot. But he does have angry outbursts. I don't know why people think I am imitating Hitler It makes me laugh. I will massacre them as the Turks did. I will build a little island and put them all on there. For two decades he went on a sexual rampage, sleeping with hundreds, if not thousands, of women and treating them and his long-suffering wife Rachele and the ever-loyal Claretta, disgracefully throughout.

It was not until spring that it all finally unravelled for Il Duce. With Fascism in its death throes, the Allied victory over the Germans in Italy only days away and numerous plots to kill him, he and Claretta tried to flee the country, but were intercepted by partisans and shot by machine gun at point-blank range.

Their bodies were taken to Milan and strung up by their feet from the roof of a petrol station as the crowds of men and - more tellingly - women jeered, laughed and roared. Finally, in death, the Italian stallion had lost his magic. Sunday, November 22, Jerusalem Post: Mussolini was a fierce anti-Semite Nov. Excerpts were published Monday.

According to the diaries, Mussolini also talked about the warm reception he received from Hitler at the Munich conference - he called the German leader a "softy" - and attacked Pope Pius XI for his criticism of Nazism and Fascism.

On a more intimate note, Mussolini was explicit about his sexual appetites for his mistress and said he regretted having affairs with several other women. The dairies kept by Claretta Petacci, Mussolini's mistress, between and are the subject of a book coming out this week entitled "Secret Mussolini.

Historians said the diaries appeared to be convincing and reinforced the image that Mussolini was strongly anti-Semitic, even though early on there was some Jewish support for his Fascist movement. But they cautioned that these are the diaries of the dictator's lover - not Mussolini himself - and therefore must be taken with an extra grain of salt.

Corriere said the diaries shed new light on Mussolini, who had been seen as more obsequious toward the pope and "dubious" over Italy's racial laws, which led to widespread persecution of Italian Jews. Many of the excerpts that were published date to , a crucial year during which Mussolini's Fascist regime passed the racial laws and Europe sealed its appeasement toward Nazi Germany at the Munich conference.

I don't know how they can think I'm imitating Hitler," Mussolini is quoted as boasting in August In , German troops occupied northern and central Italy, and thousands of Jews were deported.

According to some researchers, there were 32, Jews in in Italy, of whom over 8, were deported to Nazi concentration camps. At another point he calls them "enemies" and "reptiles," according to the excerpts. Mussolini also denounced Pius XI, who saw the rise of anti-Semitism in the last years of his papacy, as harming the Catholic Church. Pius commissioned an encyclical to denounce racism and the violent nationalism of Germany, but he died before releasing it and it was never published.

The Fascist dictator said that "there never was a pope as harmful to religion" as Pius XI and accused him of doing "undignified things, such as saying we are similar to the Semites," according to the excerpts. Mussolini had kind words for Hitler, whom he said was "very nice" and had tears in his eyes when he met the Italian dictator in Munich. Mussolini also wrote to Petacci about his "mad desire" for her "little body" and his regret over having had relations with other women.

I mustn't make you suffer," he was quoted as saying. Mussolini and Petacci were shot by partisans on April 28, , and their bodies were displayed to a jeering crowd hanging upside-down from a gas station in a Milan square.

Piero Melograni, a historian who has written several books on Fascism and World War II, said the excerpts were "convincing in terms of the character that emerges and therefore the authenticity of the diaries. But he said the personal quotes almost "humanize" him.

If this be treason: The American Heritage Tipi di processo traduttivo nella cultura , Milano: La gestione del residuo traduttivo nella comunicazione interlinguistica. Commonplaces may come and go, but one that has held forth over the years to the dismay and discouragement of translators is the Italian punning canard traduttore, traditore translator, traitor , leading one to believe that the translator, worse than an unfortunate bungler, is a treacherous knave.

Before copping a plea and offering a nolo contendere, let me see wherein this treason lies and against whom. I Luoghi comuni vanno e vengono, ma uno che ha tenuto banco nel tempo provocando lo sgomento e lo sconforto dei traduttori è il maligno gioco di parole italiano traduttore, traditore, che porta a credere che il traduttore, più che uno sventurato pasticcione, è un traditore senza scrupoli.

Let us submit the practice of translation to a judicial enquiry into its various ways and means and in this display seek out the many varieties of betrayal which might be inherent to its art. I say art and not craft because you can teach a craft but you cannot teach an art. You can teach Picasso how to mix his paints but you cannot teach him how to paint his demoiselles.

There are many spots where translation can be accused of treason, all inevitably interconnected in such diverse ways that an overall view is needed to reveal the many facets of the treason the Italians purport to see. The most elemental of these will be betrayal of the word, for the word is the very essence of language, the metaphor for all the things we see, feel, and imagine. Languages are the products of a culture, or perhaps the reverse as some bold anthropologist might have it.

Treason against a culture will therefore be automatic as we betray its words and speech as well as assorted other little items along the way.

The first victim is, of course, the author we are translating. Can we ever make a different-colored done? Oltre a questo abbiamo anche un tradimento della lingua, in entrambe le direzioni cerco di evitare il gergo di target language ; sono un ex fante, e a noi soldati di fanteria insegnavano a sparare a un target , un bersaglio, e, in teoria, ucciderlo.

Le lingue sono prodotti di una cultura, o forse è il contrario, come alcuni arditi antropologi sembrano sostenere. Il tradimento di una cultura sarà quindi automatico se oltre a tradire le sue parole e il suo discorso tradiamo contemporaneamente anche altri piccoli elementi. Potremo mai fare un clone di un un. Can we ever feel what the author felt as he wrote the words we are transforming? As we betray the author we are automatically betraying our variegated readership and at the same time we are passing on whatever bit of betrayal the author himself may have foisted on them in the original unless we have left it out on some Frosty morning along with the poetry.

Lastly and most subtly we betray ourselves. We will sacrifice our best hunches in favor of some pedestrian norm in fear of betraying the task we were set to do.

This last betrayal must stand before all the treasons here delineated as the most foul. Words are treacherous things, much moreso than any translator could ever be. As is obvious, words are mere metaphors for things.

Ultimo e più sottile dei tradimenti, quello contro noi stessi. Sacrificheremo le nostre intuizioni migliori a favore di qualche norma pedestre nel timore di tradire il compito che ci è stato assegnato. Le parole sono cose subdole, ancora più di quanto possa esserlo qualunque traduttore. Come è ovvio, le parole sono semplici metafore delle cose. Ne è dimostrazione il pungente episodio della terza parte dei Viaggi di Gulliver in cui il viaggiatore raggiunge la città di Lagado e visita la grande Accademia.

Questa soluzione, oltre a …………. We could even get about rebuilding Babel. In the real world the rich man with his college education can express himself so much better and more clearly than the poor illiterate.

There is more to it than this. If a word is a metaphor for a thing, why does a single thing have so many metaphors in orbit about it? Here we have the dire consequences of Babel.

If Mama Lucy had speech, her Ursprache must have spread out and scattered into more variants than the birdsongs of a single species. This has left us with a welter of words to designate one simple thing. Stone can never sound like pierre, so are the two words interchangeable simply because they represent the same object?

Since Flaubert would either say or think pierre when he picked one up does stone cover his thought when we translate him? That Lagadian discussion would best be left to the likes of Bouvard and Pécuchet, along with the analysis of why a diamond is a stone to the.

Potremmo persino pensare di ricostruire Babele. Ecco le conseguenze disastrose di Babele. Questo ci ha lasciato con un ammasso di parole per designare solo una cosa. Stone non suonerà mai come pierre , allora le due parole sono interscambiabili solo perché rappresentano lo stesso oggetto?

Dato che Flaubert avrebbe detto o pensato pierre sollevandone una, stone ricopre tutto il suo pensiero quando lo traduciamo? Not only has the object been betrayed here but the word itself has also been. As it moves ahead progresses? Among languages there are ever so many terms used to denote the same object and by their very variety they beggar any possibility of ascertaining the unique reality of said object.

The now regnant cult of indeterminacy might be happy with this, but homo sapiens likes to know as his name implies and which is what makes us what we are today and what we shall be tomorrow if we ever get that far. This leaves us with the question of whether a stone can ever be a pierre or a pierre a stone and whether either of them can be that hard object we are looking at on the ground, teaching us that even if a thing can be cloned the word that designates it cannot and any attempt to reproduce it in another tongue is betrayal.

Some concepts seem to be the exclusive property of one language and cannot be rightly conceived in another. Man mano che va avanti progredisce? As we borrow from another language to enrich our own, more often than not there is treason afoot, if not in the meaning certainly in the sound.

Although the French sound of lingerie is not too difficult to reproduce fairly closely in English, most people will plusquam it into a hyper-Gallic lahnjeray, a sound worthy of W. Fields and his say finay. What Kafka called it was simply an ungeheuern Ungeziefer, a monstrous vermin. He then goes on to describe what is obviously a hard-carapaced beetle. The pull of local reality is too strong for a New Yorker to make a closer concept or translation.

This then can be seen as a betrayal by the imposition of another culture. Most of these matters merge to form an indirect betrayal of the author.

He is a compendium of all these factors: These are, in fact, inseparable, and the author is their product, the same as what he writes. His free will and originality only exist within the bounds of his culture.

If he is to betray it, he betrays it from within, which connotes intimate ……. Fields e il suo say finay. Un tradimento della lingua spesso è il tradimento delle parole e allo stesso tempo è un riflesso degli ostacoli presenti nella comunicazione fra culture. Tendiamo ad acculturare la sensibilità, la ricettività e i riflessi stranieri nel nostro stesso ambiente con i necessari cambiamenti.

Quello che intendeva Kafka era semplicemente un ungeheuern Ungeziefer , un mostruoso parassita. Poi continua a descrivere quello che ovviamente è un coleottero con un duro carapace. Per un abitante di New York il richiamo della realtà locale è troppo forte per arrivare a un concetto o a una traduzione più rigorosi. Whitin his cultural limits the author, asan individual, can and, indeed, must extend himself as far as he can to set himself and his art apart from the commonplace, showing all the while whence he comes, doing this through language most of all.

With the translator we have quite the opposite situation. He cannot and must not set himself apart from the culture laid out before him. To do so would indeed be treasonous. Nowhere is translation more dubious than here as we try to translate into our own language and culture something that the author is translating into words within his culture and still make it our own. The important thing is to consider whether the treason is high or low, the sin mortal or venial.

The translator, we should know, is a writer too. As a matter of fact, he could be called the ideal writer because all he has to do is write; plot, theme, characters, and all the other essentials have already been provided,. Con il traduttore si ha una situazione esattamente opposta. Fare questo infatti sarebbe un tradimento. Il traduttore, dovremmo saperlo, è anche uno scrittore. But he is also a reader. It is a common notion to say that if a work has 10, readers it becomes 10, different books.

The translator is only one of these readers and yet he must read the book in such a way that he will be reading the Spanish into English as he goes along, with the result that his reading is also writing. His reading, then, becomes the one reading that is going to spawn 10, varieties of the book in the unlikely case that it will sell that many copies and will be read by that many people. Our translator must know that this is the best he can do in this place and at this time and must still recognize that his work is, in a sense, unfinished.

Although I have been satisfied with a translation when I finish it as a translator ought to be , years later as I peruse the published text I find myself wishing I could make some changes for the better. There will be carping from the critics, but he will be closer to being right that way and, in any case, he will not have betrayed himself. A careful confidence in himself is as necessary for …….. Ma è anche un lettore. Deve leggere il testo attentamente per sapere di cosa parla.

Ecco dove riceve meno direttive o indicazioni dal testo. Il traduttore è solo uno di questi lettori eppure deve leggere il libro in modo tale che mentre procede sta leggendo lo spagnolo trasformandolo in inglese, con il risultato che la sua lettura è anche scrittura.

Il traduttore non deve tradire le sue intuizioni. Riceverà critiche persistenti, ma sarà più probabile che abbia ragione in quel modo e, in ogni caso, non avrà tradito se stesso. Una prudente fiducia in se stesso è necessaria per un traduttore tanto quanto lo è.

The translator must put to good use that bugbear of timid technicians: In translation as in writing, which it is as we have said, the proper word is better than a less proper but standard one. Translation is based on choice and a rather personal one at that. Long ago I discovered a funny thing: I suppose this is some kind of verbicide, bleeding the poor word of its very essences, its precious bodily fluids, and leaving a dry remnant that could pass for a five-letter group in a cryptographic message.

When we snap out of it and retrieve the meaning of the word, we have, in a sense, deciphered it. Il traduttore deve sfruttare al meglio lo spauracchio degli esperti timorosi: Nella traduzione come nella scrittura, e come abbiamo detto la traduzione lo è, la parola adatta è meglio di una meno adatta ma accettabile.

Anche qui il traduttore deve prendere in prestito la spada corta di Alessandro. La traduzione si basa sulla scelta, e per di più su una scelta piuttosto personale. Molto tempo fa ho scoperto una cosa divertente: Suppongo si tratti in qualche modo di verbicidio, si risucchia alla povera parola la sua vera essenza, i suoi preziosi liquidi biologici, e si lascia un residuo secco che potrebbe passare per un blocco di cinque lettere in un messaggio crittografico. Let me commit an act of treason against myself now by confessing that translation was not a metier I had set out to follow, nor did I prepare myself for it with any conscious training or contemplation.

I can trace my life back to a certain moment, an epiphany, if you will, when I came into complete self-awareness. From that moment on, existence has been a more or less continuous thread of memory, something that still makes me wonder as I contemplate it from this life of ours as schedule, with its hours, days, and years. I was about three years old and was walking back down Pinneo Hill road to the family house north of Hanover in New Hampshire. Gli spagnoli hanno un detto che recita: Memory before that had been quite sporadic, as it has become once more over the years, bits and pieces recalled vaguely and episodically as from a dream.

This was that odd period in existence when we are as strangers to our now selves. For most of any recall of what I had seen up to before that mystical revelation on Pinneo Hill I was beholden to my parents and others for any memory of what I had been doing. When I came into full self-awareness at three I was already endowed with speech and a fair vocabulary in English. Other tongues came later, with conscious acquisition.

At that existential awakening, however, as I returned home from I know not where up the hill, I seemed to have no conscious flow of memory of what I had been doing the day before and earlier.

One of these has stayed with me as I have been reminded of it, and it continues to. I miei ricordi prima di quel momento sono piuttosto sporadici, e lo sono diventati ancor di più col passare del tempo, frammenti e pezzetti ricordati in modo vago ed episodico come in un sogno. Il succo di quel periodo è ben riassunto da Chico Marx nelle vesti di Chicolini ne La guerra lampo dei fratelli Marx , quando il procuratore, interpretato da Charles B. Middleton, gli chiede quando è nato e Chico spiega che non lo ricorda, era ancora un bambino piccolo.

È in questa consapevolezza crepuscolare che abbiamo iniziato ad ascoltare e a parlare per la prima volta. Le altre lingue le ho acquisite consapevolmente più tardi. In questo risveglio esistenziale, comunque, mentre tornavo a casa da non so dove sulla collina, mi sembrava di non avere un flusso di memoria consapevole di quello che avevo fatto il giorno prima e quello prima ancora.

Una di queste mi è rimasta dentro finché me la sono ricordata, e continua. The word is magotso, or however it might be spelled, and it is evidently a word I would say when passing a cemetery. I am hard put to come up with a legitimate word for a graveyard that could have been mangled into this bizarre form by infantile efforts at speech. Could it have been some atavistic throwback to Adam who, according to Genesis, was given the marvelous creative privilege of naming things?

Perhaps when the sad moment came to plant Abel. Or maybe it was something left over from what Lucy said. Yet again could there have been some early intimations of mortality brought on by my anticipation of getting to know Kierkegaard? Then there was my first cat, a fine gray tabby queen whose descendants of all colors and types, depending on the wandering torn of the moment, came to inhabit the place for years to come.

We called that type a tiger cat. This one I named Catso, no doubt under the influence of the name Fatso. I should have known better, having served in Italy for two and a half years during.

Faccio molta fatica a trovare una parola usata legittimamente per un campo santo che possa essere stata storpiata in questa forma bizzarra dallo sforzo di parola di un bambino. Forse quando è arrivato il triste momento di seppellire Abele. O forse si tratta di qualcosa che è rimasto di quello che ha detto Lucy. Poi è arrivato il mio primo gatto, un soriano femmina i cui discendenti di tutti i colori e tipi, a seconda del maschio vagabondo di turno, hanno popolato la zona per gli anni a venire.

Chiamavamo quella varietà gatto tigrato. Potrebbe essere stato un tentativo di riprodurre il miagolio del gatto, e lei lo era. Questo battesimo apparentemente inconsapevole è stato più fortunato di un altro che risale a molti, molti anni più tardi durante il mio periodo consapevole.

Ero venuto in possesso di un altro bel gatto soriano per condividere i miei pochi metri in Sullivan Street al Village. These small personal anecdotes serve to show how words have any number of possible nuances for every individual as they rest in the subconscious and relate to some early experience.

Chomsky might delve further into the possibility that we may be carrying some mysterious remote lexicon in our DNA. In the translation of words, then, the problem is compounded. As always with translation, this calls for a choice among synonyms. In most cases, however, and as it should be, it is made quite naturally and instinctively: È molto probabile che semplicemente non fossi consapevole di cosa stessi facendo, specialmente a causa delle differenze di spelling e del fatto che al sud gli italiani tendono a pronunciare molto aperta la sillaba iniziale.

Chomsky potrebbe indagare più a fondo sulla possibilità che forse conserviamo nel DNA un misterioso e remoto vocabolario. Nella traduzione delle parole, poi, il problema si complica. Nella maggior parte dei casi, comunque, e come dovrebbe essere, si fa in modo piuttosto naturale e istintivo: Anche il traduttore di solito dovrebbe lavorare sulla base di questa naturale attribuzione di significato: This personal aspect of language can be extended to life itself.

As far as the individual is concerned, life truly exists only as he feels it and thereby ponders it. Even God as the Word has been put down and translated variously. The pensive Greeks call Him logos while the active Romans say verbum. Names are one of the bugbears of translation and usually illustrate its impossibility.

Almost all Christian and Old Testament names have local versions wherever the Good. Traduciamo la nostra esistenza e la nostra circostanza man mano che viviamo e prima di essere fatalmente assegnati al destino di traduttori una volta che il tradimento è stato fatto: Anche God e Word sono stati scritti e tradotti in vari modi. I contemplativi greci Lo chiamano logos mentre gli attivi Romani dicono verbum.

I nomi sono uno degli spauracchi della traduzione e di solito illustrano la sua impossibilità. Quasi tutti i nomi cristiani e del Vecchio. These names are not only loaded down with ancient biblical or classical connotations but have acquired ever so many new ones along the way.

Names, and especially nick- names, almost always carry some cultural nuance: For purposes of evacuation we go to the john; in Portugal one goes to have a talk with Miguel, or simply to the Miguel. This last name in familiar English is reduced to one syllable, Mike, while in Spanish it gains another, Miguelito.

Can either one therefore ever be the equivalent of the other? By not translating names we can at least maintain a certain aura of the original tongue and its culture. Hitler to me was always Adolf but now I most often see Adolph and hear ay-dolf. Questi nomi non solo sono sovraccarichi di antiche connotazioni bibliche o classiche ma ne hanno acquisite moltissime altre nel tempo.

I nomi, e soprattutto i soprannomi, veicolano quasi sempre alcune sfumature culturali: Per andare in bagno noi diciamo go to the John ; in Portogallo si va a fare una chiacchierata con Miguel, o semplicemente da Miguel.

Se non traduciamo i nomi possiamo almeno mantenere una certa aura della lingua originale e della sua cultura. Shakespeare sarà Guillermo in spagnolo ma Cervantes è sempre Miguel in inglese. Hitler per me è sempre stato Adolf ma ora vedo sempre più spesso Adolph e sento ay-dolf. Laurel and Hardy better known in Spanish as El Gordo y el Flaco, corresponding to what children in my day used to call them: Fat and Skinny I would be interested in knowing why it is in both languages that the epithets should reverse the order of the surnames.

Roman names are largely maintained in English while the pronunciation is anglicized i. To my ear the English usage sounds properly alien and classical. Greek names often hold a Latinate form in English, cf. I recently finished the translation of a novel by the Colombian Jorge Franco Ramos entitled Rosario Tijeras , Rosario, the main character, is nicknamed Tijeras shears, scissors because her earliest act of violence was to take her mother s sewing tool and geld the man who had raped her.

Translating the epithet that had been hung on her would be awkward. Leaving it also followed in a certain way the old manner in which surnames were acquired.

Her real name, like God s, is never revealed and everyone knew her as Rosario Tijeras. Nor does the nickname stand in need of translation as the episode wherein she acquires it is recounted early in the book.

Words, as well as certain idioms and grammatical usages, are in many ways the items most quickly subject to a kind of Darwinian evolutionary process, except that the natural selection here encountered appears to my mind to be less of a survival of the. Laurel e Hardy in Spagna sono conosciuti meglio come El Gordo y El Flaco, che corrispondono al modo in cui i bambini li chiamavano ai miei tempi: I nomi romani sono ampliamente mantenuti in inglese mentre la pronuncia è anglicizzata esmpio: If Julius Caesar sees her he will surely seize her , mentre in spagnolo e in francese sono ispanizzati e gallicizzati Julio César e Jules César.

I nomi greci spesso mantengono una forma latina in inglese, come Herodotus. Ho finito da poco la traduzione di un romanzo del colombiano Jorge Franco Ramos intitolato Rosario Tijeras. Mantenerlo seguiva in un certo senso anche il vecchio uso secondo cui i cognomi andavano acquisiti.

Il suo vero nome, come quello di Dio, non è mai rivelato e tutti la conoscevano come Rosario Tijeras. This, of course, depends on what one considers the fittest to be. Populists would most likely disagree with me in this matter, but I have always maintained that vox populi, vox Dei is an open invitation to atheism. Beyond any qualitative considerations, there is the matter of changing times, autres temps, autres moeurs.

There must be some answer based on sound linguistic theory. Translators, then, are placed in the difficult position of having to be careful not to nail their translation onto the period in which they are living. Like the leaves on trees, words age, yellow, and drop off after a time,. Questo, naturalmente, dipende da cosa si considera il più adatto. Alcune parole e usi sono cambiati o apparsi o scomparsi nel corso della mia vita.

Mi rendo conto sempre di più del fatto che gonna è diventato di uso standard nei discorsi presidenziali e di alto livello e mi chiedo che effetto avrebbe fatto se nel F. Devono esserci delle risposte sulla base delle teorie linguistiche più solide.

I traduttori, poi, si trovano nella difficile posizione di dover fare attenzione a non inchiodare le loro traduzioni al periodo in cui vivono. Come le foglie sugli alberi, le parole invecchiano, ingialliscono, e. Translating Machado de Assis, who wrote the most enduring Portuguese since Camoes perhaps even more so, given the fact that he was a novelist , I try hard to find words that are equally valid in his time and in ours and which, we hope, will endure beyond both ages.

A good translation of Cervantes, and there are quite a few, must not be so contemporary that it will eventually become archaic because Cervantes as read today in Spanish is only mildly so. Motteux can sound archaic because he was a contemporary of Cervantes. Where Motteux messed up was in not finding as many evergreen words as Cervantes had used.

As I discovered translating Machado de Assis and Garcia Marquez, the masters will enable you to render their prose into the best possible translation if you only let yourself be led by their expression, following the only possible way to go. If you ponder you will have lost the path. Traducendo Machado de Assis, che ha scritto nel portoghese più duraturo dai tempi di Camões forse anche di più, dato che lui era un autore di romanzi , faccio fatica a trovare parole che siano ugualmente valide ai suoi tempi e ai nostri e che, speriamo, sopravvivano a entrambe le epoche.

Forse non si è lasciato guidare da Cervantes dal punto di vista linguistico. Se vi trovate a meditare significa che avete già sbagliato strada. This morass of troubles is made all the more swampy as we come to the task of joining these translated words together to make sense in the new language. This process must take into account what is called syntax, grammar, and the like, as all the pitfalls we had to confront with individual words are not only encountered here but a good many new ones as well.

Cultures are at work again. Word order that seems quite logical to one people will look absurd to another. So-called dialect comedians have used this phenomenon to great advantage in their skits since so much of comedy and humor is based on absurdities. Our own language itself can seem absurd when placed under a neutral light.

If we stare at a word long enough it will become strange and even foolish, to the ruination of any sense it might have had before. Abbiamo visto la notevole varietà di significati, sottili e diretti, che si aggrappano alle parole.

Questa giungla di difficoltà è resa ancor più paludosa quando arriviamo al compito di collegare queste parole tradotte perché abbiano senso nella nuova lingua.

Sono ancora in gioco le culture. Il cosiddetto teatro dialettale ha usato questo fenomeno al meglio negli sketch dato che gran parte della sua comicità e del suo humour si basa sulle assurdità. Se fissiamo una parola abbastanza a lungo diventa strana e perfino stupida, fino alla rovina di qualunque senso potesse avere avuto prima.

For older evidence of what annoyed Churchill we have the development of the Romance languages from Latin. As schoolboys and girls we had to struggle with the makeup of Greek and Latin. I think that Latin was harder, even if Greek did have its strange first and second aorists only matched later on by Russian and its aspects.

But we were studying that noble and complex tongue of Cicero and Virgil, not the language of the marketplace. The assorted Celtic, Iberian, Italic, and other hewers of wood and drawers of water had already made the Latin language more pliable to their simple needs as evinced by the language of their church in die Vulgate.

The people were well on their way to getting rid of case endings and simplifying the system of tenses as what were to be new languages evolved. And, yet, these various supposedly inept versions of the Latin language have produced beautiful bits of expression that can belong only to them.

Only a Frenchman can properly mouth the poetry of Verlaine in a way that is completely natural and even instinctive because the rendition comes from that part of his brain wherein his native language is housed.

It has been claimed that a person who has lost his speech because of a stroke can still communicate in a foreign language he. Da studenti e studentesse abbiamo dovuto lottare con le strutture del greco e del latino. Penso che il latino fosse più difficile, anche se il greco aveva i suoi strani aoristi primo e secondo emulato in seguito solo dal russo con i suoi aspetti. Ma noi studiavamo la lingua nobile e complessa di Cicerone e Virgilio, non la lingua parlata al mercato.

I vari celti, iberici, italici, e altri popoli di taglialegna e navigatori avevano già reso la lingua latina più flessibile alle loro semplici esigenze come si evince dal linguaggio della loro chiesa nella Vulgata. È stato detto che una persona che ha perso la parola in seguito a un trauma riesce ancora a comunicare. If this be so, then we are faced with the possibility that when we shift into another language we become a different person by running on a different part of our brain.

So the poor translator must not just go back and forth between two languages, but if he is worthy of his calling must shift between two selves, with all the perils of this induced schizophrenia. The matter of subject, verb, and object, therefore, and their placement in a sentence will depend on the cultural instincts of the language spoken.

Heavy-handed humorists often avail themselves of syntactical differences between languages in order to make fun of them.

This is usually accompanied by a burst of macaronic pronunciation. But Romance languages have, in certain ways, been an improvement over classical Latin as vehicles for easier communication with their elimination of case endings and a resort to prepositions in order to denote relationships.

In even the best of examples a translation cannot get to the. La questione di soggetto, verbo e oggetto, quindi, e la loro collocazione in una frase dipenderanno dagli istinti culturali della lingua parlata.

I comici più rozzi spesso si avvalgono delle differenze sintattiche tra le lingue per prendersene gioco. Allo stesso tempo hanno eliminato la capacità del latino di adattare le parole ad alcuni metri poetici in modo da produrre un andamento ritmico piuttosto naturale. I tentativi contemporanei di mantenere la metrica in traduzione in modo fin troppo preciso di solito sono goffi e procustiani.

Anche negli esempi migliori. A piece of writing cannot be cloned in another language, only imitated. Like the colors of the spectrum, languages are unique and distinctive; they can approach each other but never reproduce one another. What makes translation seem so possible is that we live in a world of similarities and it is too much with us.

Languages, like the colors mentioned above, are similar and we can at least imagine how they would look in another hue. But what about those invisible colors that lurk at the ends of the spectrum?

The limits of our ability to perceive show up in the fact that we are unable even to imagine what these colors might be like. We would have to be certain birds. Translation may be impossible, but it can at least be essayed. Come i colori dello spettro, le lingue sono uniche e particolari; possono avvicinarsi le une alle altre, ma mai riprodursi a vicenda. Il Columbia blue non potrà mai riprodurre lo Yale blue, eppure si chiamano entrambi blue e hanno moltissime concomitanze culturali.

Ma per quei colori invisibili che si annidano alle estremità dello spettro? I limiti della nostra capacità percettiva emergono chiaramente con il fatto che non siamo capaci nemmeno di immaginare a cosa questi colori potrebbero assomigliare.

Dovremmo essere un certo tipo di uccelli. Providing a number of examples comparing mainly the English and Russian grammatical patterns, the author demonstrates that any assumption of untranslatable cognitive data would be a contradiction in terms because the definition of our experience requires recoding interpretation; that is, translation. We never consumed ambrosia or nectar and have only a linguistic acquaintance with the words ambrosia , nectar , and gods — the name of their mythical users; nonetheless, we understand these words and know in what contexts each of them may be used.

The meaning of the words cheese , apple , nectar , acquaintance , but , mere , and of any word or phrase whatsoever is definitely a linguistic—or to be more precise and less narrow—a semiotic fact.

Against those who assign meaning signatum not to the sign, but to the thing itself, the simplest and truest argument would be that nobody has ever smelled or tasted the meaning of cheese or of apple. There is no signatum without signum. An array of linguistic signs is needed to introduce an unfamiliar word. Mere pointing will not teach us whether cheese is the name of the given specimen, or of any box of camembert, or of camembert in general or of any cheese, any milk product, any food, any refreshment, or perhaps any box irrespective of contents.

Finally, does a word simply name the thing in question, or does it imply a meaning such as offering, sale, prohibition, or malediction?

Pointing actually may mean malediction; in some cultures, particularly in Africa, it is an ominous gesture. For us, both as linguists and as ordinary word-users, the meaning of any linguistic. Non esiste signatum senza signum. Per introdurre una parola sconosciuta è necessaria una serie di segni linguistici. Insomma, una parola dà semplicemente un nome alla cosa in questione, oppure implica un significato, per esempio, di offerta, vendita, proibizione o maledizione?

We distinguish three ways of interpreting a verbal sign: These three kinds of translation are to be differently labeled:. The intralingual translation of a word uses either another, more or less synonymous, word or resorts to a circumlocution. Yet synonymy, as a rule, is not complete equivalence: Likewise on the level of interlingual translation, there is ordinarily no full equivalence between code units, while messages may serve as adequate interpretations of alien code units or messages.

The English word cheese cannot be completely identified with its standard Russian heteronym syr , because cottage cheese is a cheese but not a syr. In standard Russian, the food made of pressed curds is called syr only if ferment is used. Si distinguono tre modi di interpretare un segno verbale: Questi tre tipi di traduzione devono essere classificati in modo diverso:.

Such a translation is a reported speech; the translator recodes and transmits a message received from another source. Thus translation involves two equivalent messages in two different codes. Equivalence in difference is the cardinal problem of language and the pivotal concern of linguistics. Like any receiver of verbal messages, the linguist acts as their interpreter.

No linguistic specimen may be interpreted by the science of language without a translation of its signs into other signs of the same system or into signs of another system. Any comparison of two languages implies an examination of their mutual translatability; widespread practice of interlingual communication, particularly translating activities, must be kept under constant scrutiny by linguistic science.

It is difficult to overestimate the urgent need for and the theoretical and practical significance of differential bilingual dictionaries with careful comparative definition of all the corresponding units in their intention and extension. Likewise differential bilingual grammars should define what unifies and what differentiates the two languages in their selection and delimitation of grammatical concepts. Both the practice and the theory of translation abound with intricacies, and from time to time attempts are made to sever the Gordian knot by proclaiming the dogma of untranslatability.

Whorf, is supposed to have arrived at the following bit of reasoning: Come ogni ricevente di messaggi verbali, il linguista funge da loro interprete. La scienza del linguaggio non potrebbe interpretare nessun campione linguistico senza tradurne i segni in altri segni dello stesso sistema o in segni di un altro sistema.

Qualsiasi confronto tra due lingue implica un esame della loro reciproca traducibilità; la pratica diffusa della comunicazione interlinguistica, e in particolare le attività di traduzione, devono essere tenute costantemente sotto osservazione dalla scienza linguistica. Similmente, grammatiche bilingui differenziali dovrebbero definire che cosa unifica e che cosa differenzia le due lingue nella loro selezione e delimitazione dei concetti grammaticali.

Whorf, dovrebbe essere arrivato al seguente ragionamento: Durante i primi anni della Rivoluzione russa alcuni fanatici visionari dibattevano sui periodici sovietici per ottenere una revisione radicale della lingua tradizionale e in particolare per sradicare espressioni fuorvianti come il sorgere e il tramontare del sole.

Such a metalinguistic operation permits revision and redefinition of the vocabulary used. The complementarity of both levels — object language and metalanguage — was brought out by Niels Bohr: All cognitive experience and its classification is conveyable in any existing language.

Whenever there is a deficiency, terminology may be qualified and amplified by loanwords or loan translations, by neologisms or semantic shifts, and, finally, by circumlocutions. No lack of grammatical device in the language translated into makes impossible a literal translation of the entire conceptual information contained in the original.

Of these three conjunctions, only the latter occurs in one of the Samoyed languages Bergsland If some grammatical category is absent in a given language, its meaning may be translated into this language by lexical means. Dual forms like Old Russian brata are.

La complementarità di entrambi i livelli — linguaggio-oggetto e metalinguaggio — è stata messa in luce da Niels Bohr: Quando vi sia una deficienza, è possibile qualificare e amplificare la terminologia mediante prestiti o traduzioni di prestiti, mediante neologismi o cambiamenti semantici e, infine, mediante circonlocuzioni.

She has either one or more than one brother. As Franz Boas neatly observed, the grammatical pattern of a language as opposed to its lexical stock determines those aspects of each experience that must be expressed in the given language: In order to translate accurately the English sentence I hired a worker , a Russian needs supplementary information, whether this action was completed or not and whether the worker was a man or a woman, because he must make his choice between a verb of completive or noncompletive aspect— nanjal or nanimal —and between a masculine and feminine noun— rabotnika or rabotnicu.

If I ask the utterer of the English sentence whether the worker was male or female, my question may be judged irrelevant or indiscreet, whereas in the Russian version of this sentence an answer to this question is obligatory.

Because the information required by the English and Russian grammatical pattern is unlike, we face quite different sets of two-choice situations; therefore a chain of translations of one and the same isolated sentence from English into Russian and vice-versa could entirely deprive such a message of its initial content. The Geneva linguist S. Karcevskij used to compare such a gradual loss with a circular series of unfavorable currency transactions.

But evidently the richer the context of a message, the smaller the loss of information. Come ha acutamente osservato Boas, il modello grammaticale di una lingua diversamente dal suo bagaglio lessicale determina quali aspetti di ogni esperienza devono essere espressi in quella data lingua: Il linguista ginevrino S.

Ma evidentemente, più è ricco il contesto di un messaggio, minore è la perdita di informazioni. Languages differ essentially in what they must convey and not in what they can convey.

Each verb of a given language imperatively raises a set of specific yes-or-no questions, as for instance: Naturally the attention of native speakers and listeners will be constantly focused on such items as are compulsory in their verbal code.

In its cognitive function, language is minimally dependent on the grammatical pattern because the definition of our experience stands in complementary relation to metalinguistic operations—the cognitive level of language not only admits but directly requires recoding interpretation, that is, translation. Any assumption of ineffable or untranslatable cognitive data would be a contradiction in terms.

But in jest, in dreams, in magic, briefly, in what one would call everyday verbal mythology, and in poetry above all, the grammatical categories carry a high semantic import.

In these conditions, the question of translation becomes much mare entangled and controversial. Even such a category as grammatical gender, often cited as merely formal, plays a great role in the mythological attitudes of a speech community. In Russian the feminine cannot designate a male person, nor the masculine specify a female. Ways of personifying or metaphorically interpreting inanimate nouns are prompted by their gender.

The fact that the word for Friday is masculine in some Slavic languages and feminine in others is reflected in the folk traditions of the corresponding peoples, which differ in their Friday ritual.

Qualsiasi presunzione di ineffabilità o intraducibilità dei dati cognitivi sarebbe una contraddizione in termini. In queste condizioni, la questione della traduzione diventa molto più intricata e controversa.

Anche una categoria come il genere grammaticale, spesso ritenuta meramente formale, riveste un ruolo importante negli atteggiamenti mitologici di una comunità discorsuale.

I modi di personificare o interpretare metaforicamente nomi inanimati sono suggeriti dal genere. The Russian painter Repin was baffled as to why Sin had been depicted as a woman by German artists: What was the initial question which arose in Slavic literature at its very beginning? In poetry, verbal equations become a constructive principle of the text. Syntactic and morphological categories, roots, and affixes, phonemes and their components distinctive features —in short, any constituents of the verbal code—are confronted, juxtaposed, brought into contiguous relation according to the principle of similarity and contrast and carry their own autonomous signification.

Il pittore russo Repin era perplesso di fronte al fatto che Peccato fosse stato raffigurato dagli artisti tedeschi come una donna: Quale fu il primo problema che emerse nella letteratura slava ai suoi albori?

In poesia, le equazioni verbali diventano un principio costitutivo del testo. Le categorie sintattiche e morfologiche, le radici, e gli affissi, i fonemi e i loro componenti tratti distintivi — in breve, qualsiasi cosa costituisca il codice verbale — vengono confrontati, giustapposti, messi in relazioni contigue secondo il principio della somiglianza e del contrasto e sono dotati di una loro significazione autonoma.

Phonemic similarity is sensed as semantic relationship. The pun, or to use a more erudite, and perhaps more precise term—paronomasia, reigns over poetic art, and whether its rule is absolute or limited, poetry by definition is untranslatable. Only creative transposition is possible: Hence a cognitive attitude would compel us to change this aphorism into a more explicit statement and to answer the questions: Written in in Cambridge, Mass.

Solo una trasposizione creativa è possibile: Traditore di quali valori? Scritto a Cambridge, Mass. The two speeches which have just been delivered are the first lectures in Japanese which I have heard in my life, and I shall tell you exactly what my feeling was. Around , in my Moscow high-school years, I saw and heard a remarkable Japanese actress from Tokyo, Hanako.

She ravished the Russian audience, was extolled by avant-garde writers and sketched by modern painters. I was deeply impressed by her performance and recounted to my parents her talks and monologues.

What is needed in order to grasp the language of another? If one longs for communication with his fellow man, the first step toward mutual comprehension is ensured. Because what is language? Language is overcoming of isolation in space and time. Language is a struggle against isolationism. And this fight occurs not only within the limits of an ethnic language, where people try to adjust to each other, and to understand each other within the bounds of family, town, or country; a similar striving also takes place on a bilingual or multilingual, international scale.

One feels a powerful desire to understand each other. This may serve as a foreword to the topic of my paper. Four decades ago, when the First International Congress of Linguists met in The Hague, all of us were struggling for the autonomy of linguistics, namely for the elaboration of its own specific methods and devices, and the very important task was to.

Io fui profondamente colpito dal suo spettacolo e ne raccontai discorsi e monologhi ai miei genitori. Che cosa serve per cogliere la lingua altrui? Se si desidera comunicare con un altro essere umano, il primo passo verso la comprensione reciproca è assicurato.

Si avverte un forte desiderio di capirsi reciprocamente. Now, when we are near to the Tenth Congress of Linguists, which will begin in Bucharest at the end of this August, we stand before a completely different problem.

At present, it is no longer the slogan of autonomy, but a program of integration, a plan of interdisciplinary relations, the problem of creative cooperation between diverse sciences. It is the problem of harmonious coordination for constructing a joint scientific domain, a science of mankind, and — in a far wider scope — a general science of life. Of course, integration implies autonomy, but, as it was once more neatly emphasized here by my dear friend, Professor Shirô Hattori, integration implies autonomy and excludes isolationism, because any isolationism harms our cultural life and our life in general.

Obviously, there is no real integration without an autonomy which takes into account the necessity of intrinsic laws for every partial field and every discipline. There is another foe of these two creative ideas, autonomy and integration. Now, what is the problem of language and culture? These two concepts are to be viewed in their interconnection. Then, first and foremost, what should we have in mind: Can we consider language as a part, as a constituent of culture, or is language something different, separate from culture?

I know, many in the audience would like to ask: There are so many definitions, and an entire voluminous book was devoted by two outstanding American anthropologists, Kluckhohn and Kroeber, to the multifarious definitions of culture, their detailed list and discussion Kluckhohn, Kroeber We may choose a very simple, operational definition, proposed in the instructive book Human Evolution by the biologist Campbell: I think, one can agree with this emphasis on imitation and.

Ma qual è il problema della lingua e della cultura? Questi due concetti devono essere visti nelle loro reciproche relazioni. Inoltre, prima di tutto, che cosa dobbiamo avere in mente? Lingua e cultura o lingua nella cultura? Possiamo considerare la lingua come una parte, un costituente della cultura, o la lingua è qualcosa di diverso, di separato dalla cultura? Lo so, molti tra il pubblico vorrebbero chiedere: Ne esistono tantissime definizioni, e due antropologi americani, Kluckhohn e Kroeber, hanno dedicato un intero volume alle molteplici definizioni di cultura, al loro elenco dettagliato e alla loro discussione Kluckhohn, Kroeber Learned solidarity of contemporaries cannot be disregarded.

Yet if we accept the standpoint that cultural values are transmitted by learning, then what is to be said about language? Is it a cultural fact? If, moreover, one has to learn a second or further language, it requires a relation between people who learn one from the other.

Among the definitions of culture current in anthropological literature, we also find an assertion that the principal way of diffusion for cultural goods is through the word, through the medium of language.

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These are, in fact, inseparable, and the author is their product, the same as what he writes. Our own language itself can seem absurd when placed under a neutral light. These two concepts are to be viewed in their interconnection. Ma io niente, rimasi di legno. In Aprilshe records their exchange after she caught him with former girlfriend Alice De Fonseca Pallottelli.

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Negli Italiani si viaggia nella Bellano magica e by night di Vitali, nell' antica Roma di Comastri Montanari e nella Venezia ottocentesca di Maurensig. Le new entry oscillano tra brividi Deaver , sentimenti Sparks e pillole di letteratura Fénéon. Nei Saggi, Vespa è davanti a tutti; inseguono Brosio, folgorato sulla via di Medjugorje, e Gad Lerner, che scala undici posti; le novità sono Mancuso e Mussolini, nei diari della Petacci.

Posted by Mauro Suttora at 5: Sunday, November 29, Diario de Noticias Portogallo: Vida sexual de Mussolini. Vida sexual de Mussolini nas palavras da amante ciumenta Lisbona, Hugo Coelho "Sabes amor", começou o político italiano, "esta noite no teatro despi-te três vezes. Olhava para ti e na minha cabeça tirava-te a roupa e desejava-te como um louco Mas o homem que a disse chamava-se Benito Mussolini.

Mas em Abril deste ano, quando as festas de Berlusconi foram postas a nu nos jornais os italianos voltaram a ser confrontados com a vida pessoal de um líder. E quando foi executado pelos comunistas, durante a sua tentativa de fuga para a Suíça em Abril de , a amante Clara Petacci acompanhou-o na morte. A amante escreveu que para Mussolini era "inconcebível dormir com uma só mulher": Filha de um médico do Vaticano, Petacci tinha 20 anos quando conheceu Mussolini - na altura, com 49 anos, casado e pai de cinco filhos.

Mussolini parou para falar com ela e convidou-a para ir ao Palazzo Venezia. Conta-se que durante os primeiros anos viveram um amor platónico. Petacci casou e separou-se de um piloto antes de Mussolini fazer dela sua amante. Petacci era a mais ciumenta das centenas de mulheres que passaram pelos braços do ditador.

Conta-se que o obrigava a telefonar, pelo menos, dez vezes por dia. Quando ele se atrasava, acusava-o de a estar trair. Estive 12 minutos com ela". Foi como quando faço amor com a minha mulher.

Ele gosta mesmo de mim. Só que tem ataques de raiva". Mais tarde Petacci escreve como Mussolini se sentia irritado por pensarem nele como seguidor de Hitler. As confissões provam como Petacci era a mulher mais importante da vida de Mussolini.

Eu nasci para ti. E vou acabar ao teu lado. A fotografia é uma das poucas deles os dois, lado a lado. Posted by Mauro Suttora at 7: Thursday, November 26, Bbc: Mussolini hits the shelves. Posted by Mauro Suttora at 8: Coraggioso perché questo tema sembra diventato un tabù, malgrado le decine di documenti in proposito che sono stati pubblicati negli ultimi anni.

È una strana reazione. Non basta a giustificarla il fatto che Renzo De Felice, di cui molti degli storici che coltivano questo tabù sono stati allievi, abbia negato che il Duce sia stato appunto razzista e antisemita molto prima delle leggi razziali. C' è qualcosa d' altro, in queste reazioni. Forse, malgrado tutto, Mussolini viene considerato un autentico e profondo padre della patria e un autentico e rappresentativo italiano molto più di quanto comunemente venga detto. Intanto, bisogna ribadire che non c' è il minimo dubbio che quei diari siano autenticissimi: Dopo di che, basta analizzare quei testi e confrontarli con la documentazione che conosciamo.

Il primo è una frase che è già stata contestata, e che Claretta scrisse il 4 agosto Quel giorno Mussolini le disse: Seconda questione oggetto di contestazione: Che nel discorso a stampa e forse anche in quello davvero pronunciato il 28 ottobre non risulti che Mussolini abbia detto qualcosa contro gli ebrei, è ovvio: Riteneva che non gli convenisse e sicuramente non voleva scatenare l' antisemitismo.

Peraltro la testimonianza della Petacci non dice che il Duce fece quell' osservazione nel corso del discorso. Mussolini potrebbe aver detto qualcosa sugli ebrei in qualsiasi momento della cerimonia e anche in privato. Il inoltre è costellato di episodi, provati, di antisemitismo di Mussolini: Wednesday, November 25, Le auto di De Benedetti prigioniere. Da inizio novembre in tredici sono rimasti senza le loro automobili, prigioniere del garage sotto la sede centrale di via Ciovasso, in pieno centro a Milano, fra Duomo e Brera.

Ma lui pare se la sia cavata: La sua vettura personale giace nel silos inaccessibile di via Ciovasso. Che è uno di quei parcheggi totalmente meccanizzati in cui le auto vengono trasportate su e giù con un ascensore. Purtroppo la società di gestione, Interpark, prevede ancora tempi lunghi per il recupero: Ma neanche uscire, in caso di incidente.

Posted by Mauro Suttora at 2: Tutta colpa di due libri pubblicati quasi in contemporanea: La prima amante del duce per dieci anni, la seconda escort del Cavaliere per una sola notte. Le analogie finiscono qui? Entrambi sono emersi come leader dinamici quando la democrazia si stava incartando. Entrambi bassi e tozzi, di fisico contadinesco.

Ma nel diario della Petacci, Mussolini racconta il contrario: Facemmo il bagno insieme, mi toccava la gamba col piede. Ma io niente, rimasi di legno. Lei era la principessa, io il presidente del Consiglio. Forse si tratta solo di vanterie maschili romagnole, visto che la principessa belga era finora considerata avversa al fascismo.

In ogni caso, metterla nel mazzo assieme a una prostituta non pare degno di gentiluomini britannici. Mussolini, invece, era brusco: Giungendo a una conclusione: Rivela infatti Nicholas Farrell, autore di una biografia di Mussolini: Tuesday, November 24, Pakistan: Claretta Petacci was the daughter of a Vatican doctor, who met Mussolini in when she was 20 and became his mistress four years later.

Her journal published last week describes the period from to In her diary she has written the times of the calls and their conversation. Posted by Mauro Suttora at 1: Monday, November 23, "Mussolini segreto": Abita in famiglia a Roma proprio accanto a villa Torlonia, sulla via Nomentana, dove il dittatore vive con la possessiva moglie Rachele e i figli.

Dei primi cinque anni di relazione rimangono solo biglietti, lettere, e le trascrizioni di qualche telefonata o colloquio. La Petacci, infatti, è una grafomane: Abbiamo quindi operato una selezione, eliminando molti fogli ripetitivi con fantasie amorose o episodi insignificanti.

Quel che rimane, tuttavia, è di estremo interesse. La quale lo sospetta - e a ragione - di incontrare altre amanti a palazzo Venezia, e perfino a villa Torlonia. Insomma, abbiamo per la prima volta una cronaca intima, minuto per minuto, della vita quotidiana del fondatore del fascismo.

Con momenti esilaranti, che ricordano il film Il grande dittatore di Charlie Chaplin. Come in un vaudeville. Proprio in quelle settimane maturano gravissimi eventi: Hitler e Mussolini preparano la tragedia più grande della storia umana. Il dittatore comanda, controlla e opprime 44 milioni di italiani. E negare o scusarsi per le scappatelle da traditore seriale. Non ha mai lavorato, ha lasciato la scuola dopo il ginnasio.

Ma non ha ragioni per mentire, o distorcere la realtà. Almeno quella percepita dal suo cuore, appassionato fino allo spasimo, tanto da farsi uccidere col suo Benito nel Ecco quindi, dopo settant'anni, il duce privato.

Furbo e ingenuo assieme, falso e sincero, brillante e vergognoso. Questi diari hanno una storia complicata e affascinante. Da allora tutti i governi italiani hanno imposto il segreto di stato sul loro contenuto, anche se è probabile che siano passati al vaglio dei servizi segreti statunitense e inglese.

Essi fanno parte, infatti, delle tragiche e ancora in parte misteriose vicende dipanatesi negli ultimi giorni della guerra: Il segreto imposto sui diari di Claretta in questi sette decenni ha provocato una marea di supposizioni, centinaia di articoli e decine di libri. La sua battaglia è stata continuata da Ferdinando Petacci, nipote di Claretta, ultimo e unico erede della famiglia e quindi titolare dei diritti di pubblicazione dei diari.

Nel ho conosciuto e intervistato Ferdinando a Phoenix in Arizona Usa , dove vive. Egli è convinto, come alcuni storici, che Claretta e Marcello siano stati spie inglesi o almeno tramiti fra Mussolini e i servizi segreti britannici, e che proprio per questo siano stati eliminati. Ferdinando Petacci espone questa tesi nella prefazione. Scrive infatti il 15 ottobre Emilio Re, ispettore generale degli Archivi di Stato, nella sua relazione su questi diari per il ministero degli Interni: I più veri e importanti diari di Mussolini sono proprio questi della Petacci, dove il dittatore ridiventa uomo, si rivela senza trucchi e senza artefici.

Ricci e la dottoressa Luisa Montevecchi, curatrice del Fondo Petacci. Mauro Suttora Milano, novembre Posted by Mauro Suttora at 4: He was short barely 5ft , bald, suffered horribly from constipation and, by all accounts, rather let himself down when it came to personal hygiene. But the father of fascism must have had more than just a very twinkly eye. Because while we've always known he possessed a certain 'je ne sais quoi' - he wasn't known as Italy's 'Phallus-in-Chief' for nothing - the full extent of his extravagantly wild sex life has stayed safely under wraps.

Until now, that is, and the emergence of a series of graphically detailed diaries kept by Claretta Petacci - his lover for nine years and the woman with whom he was shot dead as they tried to flee Italy in The diaries reveal that Il Duce regularly had 14 lovers at a time, would rattle through three or four ladies in an evening and was startlingly noisy when in the throes of passion.

Oh yes, and he wasn't averse to a bit of playful biting. After decades under lock and key - Italy has a year secrecy rule on state documents - the journals are due to be published this month in a book called Mussolini Segreto Secret Mussolini.

They cover the period from to - the halcyon days of Mussolini's dictatorship - and, according to the book's editor Mauro Suttora, provide 'an intimate chronicle, minute by minute, of the daily life of the founder of fascism'.

Claretta didn't spare any blushes and every moan, whimper and pant of their sex life is included. I kiss him and we make love with such fury that his screams seem like those of a wounded beast. Then, exhausted, he falls onto the bed. They met by chance when Claretta was just 20 and Mussolini 49 - and married with five children. The young Claretta - who'd had a crush on him since her early teens and had been writing him poems and letters for years - was driving with her parents in the family Lancia when Mussolini's red Alfa Romeo roared past.

She recognised him, shouted 'Il Duce, Il Duce! They struck up a supposedly platonic four-year friendship, during which she married and separated from a young air force officer before Benito finally took her as his lover. It was a passionate affair. One of these days I'll tear a shoulder off. And you must adore my body, your giant It's like a cyclone. It's tremendous; it overwhelms everything.

In April , she records their exchange after she caught him with former girlfriend Alice De Fonseca Pallottelli. I hadn't seen her since before Christmas, I felt like seeing her; I don't think I committed a crime. I spent 12 minutes with her,' he conceded.

After 17 years there's no enthusiasm; it's like when I take my wife. Mussolini was never going to be faithful - not to his wife Rachele Guidi, whom he'd married when he was 31, and certainly not to his lover. Ever since he'd lost his virginity at 17 to a prostitute - 'she was an elderly woman who spilled out lard from all parts of her body' - he'd been obsessed with sex. I undressed them with my eyes, the girls that I met, I lusted after them violently with my thoughts.

It can't have been easy being Claretta. At the peak of his power, thousands of letters arrived every day from women begging Mussolini to sleep with them - one teacher from Piedmont even wrote pleading that he deflower her on her wedding night. The letters were sorted into 'known' or 'new' categories. After background checks by his policemen on the 'new' women, they were passed on to the great man himself, who'd pick out any that caught his eye - generally, the older women with big breasts and powerful hips - and have them summoned to the Palazzo Venezia.

Tipi di processo traduttivo beurette pieds escort girl aisne culturaa cura di B. We conclude that both components — nature and culture, inheritance and acculturation — are present, but that the hierarchy of both factors is different. Le lingue sono prodotti di una cultura, o forse è il contrario, come alcuni arditi antropologi sembrano sostenere. Nazi aides also recall that Hitler would break down and weep like a child pleading for sympathy when he found himself in difficult situations. Ich spreizte reizvoll vor ihm meine Beine und lie? E poi il ritratto di un uomo, Mussolini, che pensa soprattutto ad apparire forte, virile, che è terrorizzato dal fatto di invecchiare e parla spesso della morte. Nel caso del linguaggio poetico le cose sono completamente diverse.